Nicotine is not addictive, but it is liable for releasing dopamine, a neurotransmitter related with reinforcements and satisfaction in the brain, thus inducing addictive tendencies in humans. Nicotine is a substance present in tobacco leaf, the major ingredient in cigarettes and is believed to cause disease and addiction in cigarette smokers, (World Health Organization (WHO)).
Nicotine mimics the activities of acetylcholine, a naturally occurring neurotransmitter in the main nervous system and the nerve muscle junction of skeletal muscle tissues. Acetylcholine is responsible for excitability, which brings about improve heart rate, alertness, and reaction times, (Psychopharmacology (Berl). 1989; 97(2):257 61.). Because acetylcholine plus nicotine are chemically similar, they trigger similar cholinergic receptors in the brain. The nicotine-acetylcholine receptors include nerve endings that release dopamine when coupled or even bind with nicotine or acetylcholine. Receptors are like cups having the exact dimensions which will install a neurotransmitter particle, similar to acetylcholine.
The cup itself is lined with nerve endings (tips of neurons). It’s these nerve endings which release dopamine when the neurotransmitter acetylcholine binds together with the cup like acetylcholine receptors (cholinergic receptors). A reinforcing and reward phenomenon of dopamine develops because the dopamine that’s released from the nerve endings initiates a feeling of pleasure in the individual’s brain. The reinforcement mechanism is set up once the brain becomes addicted to the pleasure caused by the dopamine that is discharged from the cholinergic receptors. It means that the brain is consistently seeking to be pleasured. So, what will happen in the circumstances of cigarette smokers is the fact that they will continue to smoke cigarettes so the nicotine from the cigarette is able to induce the release of dopamine in the brain, causing them to feel really happy each time they smoke a cigarette, (Nature Reviews Neuroscience seven, 967-975 (December 2006)).
The very first period cigarette smokers smoked cigarettes there were just a few cholinergic receptors accessible because the natural action of acetylcholine just needs the normal level of receptors provided by nature to do its work. But, the increase concentration of nicotine available triggered the usual amounts of cholinergic receptors to be desensitized to the existence of the greater number of nicotine in the cholinergic receptors. This desensitization causes the production or growth and development of more cholinergic receptors. These extra cholinergic receptors will soon become desensitized from the extra nicotine available. Such processes occur until equilibrium is arrived at. Equilibrium is come to when cigarette smokers decide on the level of cigarettes they are going to consume or perhaps smoke in a particular day. At this particular time, a fixed quantity of receptors will be accessible for the addiction to keep on. Smokers will normally say they smoke one or even two packs each day. They said so due to the amount of receptors available to accommodate 2 packs of cigarettes in a day.
A detrimental effect of all this’s the fact that such volumes of cholinergic receptors are now available and hungry for nicotine. Thus, they can promote dopamine to pleasure the cigarette smoker. This’s the reason as to why cigarette smokers have an incredibly difficult time quitting. The best technique therefore for a cigarette smoker can be used in quitting would be to gradually scale back on the quantity of cigarettes smoked in a given time interval.
In addition to the dopamine-inducing effect of nicotine, could be the speeding-up of the heart rate by nicotine every moment a cigarette is smoked. Originating from a medical perspective, constantly creating an artificial increase in pulse rate isn’t a great idea either. For starters, a continual surge in heart rate by drugs like nicotine can cause heart disorders, (WHO).
Based on the World Health Organization, tobacco use causes diseases impacting on the heart and lungs , like heart attacks, strokes, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), emphysema, and cancers. Most cigarette induced cancers are lung cancers, cancers of the larynx, oral cavity, and pancreas. Cigarette smoke also causes myocardial infarctions, peripheral vascular disease and hypertension. The World Health Organization estimates that tobacco is accountable for aproximatelly 5.4 thousand deaths in 2004 along with about hundred million deaths during the twentieth century.
In addition to its addictive effects on the main nervous system, cigarette smoke contains a wide variety of cancer-causing agents. They work by binding to DNA leading to numerous genetic mutations. Nicotine could be the major culprit which is doing the binding to DNA causing genetic mutations, which leads to cancer. Nicotine is believed to interrupt the natural processes of apoptosis (programmed cell death) by binding to DNA in cells, (National Institute of Health (NIH)). Defective cells consist of junk DNA along with other waste materials. When apoptosis is inhibited, natural cell death doesn’t occur; instead, defective cells are allowed to proliferate or grow larger, uncontrollably. This’s what goes on in cancer and the reason why cigarette smokers are more susceptible to developing cancers.
When apoptosis is uncontrollably triggered by chemical substances, for instance nicotine, it causes normal cells to die off. This may perhaps be what’s happening within the heart tissues of cigarette smokers that are afflicted by coronary disease and could also be what is happening in the extremities of cigarette smokers, who frequently complain of too much coldness in the fingers of theirs, arms, toes, and legs, wherever blood flow is lowest.
You can find no existing studies to help this exact explanation. But, according to the expertise of known medical proof of apoptosis and also the increase in death rates of cigarette smokers, this hypothetical explanation has some credence; and can go on to have credence until proven otherwise! There is something deadly that is going on in cigarette smokers as well as nicotine is one of the elements behind it.
The tar in cigarette smoke also is an agent which sucks the life from cigarette smokers. The lung of any cigarette smoker is as black as the color of asphalt. It is like a major slice of burnt pot roast. This’s the reason why most cigarette smokers have trouble breathing. acryl display is hard for air to pass easily down the breathing passages of cigarette smokers. The sad thing is that it is difficult for cigarette smokers to quit. Thus, they continue on the street of devastation, day time after day, puffing on the quiet killer–cigarette smoking.
One vital solution to quitting smoking is smoking one less cigarette a day or maybe one less cigarette in a month if 1 less cigarette 1 day is just too steep of an adjustment to the lethal habit. If one normally smokes a pack of cigarettes a day, that individual should get rid of among the cigarettes and ignore it–throw it in the trash can. Keep in mind that the smoking of cigarettes started off gradually. No business owner started smoking a pack of cigarettes 1 day in that awful beginning phase of smoking cigarettes. Smoking just one less cigarette per a specific time frame can help remove the excessive cholinergic receptors that nicotine so dearly craves.
Wellbutrin is another way for helping people stop smoking. Wellbutrin is an antidepressant drug used by people with depression. However, it is very powerful in helping folks kick the deadly practice of cigarette smoking. It can be taken while smoking, unlike other smoking cessation agents. Wellbutrin blocks nicotine receptors as well as weakens the activity of dopamine reuptake by neurons, (J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2000 Oct; 295(1):321-7.).
Cigarette smokers who are thinking about quitting need to put into action an exercise program in their schedule because the lack of nicotine in ex-cigarette smokers causes weight gain. How can we know this? Former cigarette smokers who kicked the pattern complain of gaining weight after they quit smoking. Ask any ex-cigarette smoker. One will hear the same thing. Nicotine induces weight loss in smokers. This is the reason why most cigarette smokers are slim or skinny. If a cigarette smoker is obese while smoking cigarettes, then that person should definitely look for medical attention because there might be a really dangerous problem lurking in the shadows.